Scientists have assessed the metabolic effects of genetics, gut flora and lifestyle in more than 1,100 healthy British and American volunteers. Among them there were 660 twins.
The results of the study are published in the journal Nature Medicine .
During a two-week experiment, all volunteers followed the same menu. At the same time, experts recorded the levels of glucose, fats, insulin in their blood after meals; revealed changes in the intestinal microflora; studied how food affects sleep, appetite and physical activity.
Upon completion of the analysis of the data obtained, the scientists came to the conclusion that there is no “healthy diet” – everything is individual. In some people, so-called “healthy foods” have caused inflammation.
There is no ideal time for a meal either : some volunteers have maximum metabolic activity in the morning, others in the evening, and for some, the diet was not significant at all – the metabolic rate was the same throughout the day.
The composition of nutrients (fats, proteins and carbohydrates) in the diet also turned out to be a purely individual factor in weight loss . Thus, a person who is especially sensitive to sweets will benefit from limiting sugar, while another person in whom sweets do not cause a long increase in blood glucose levels will not need such limitations.
“Literally all participants, including the twins, reacted completely differently to the same food. This suggests that genetics play a minor role in the individual’s response to food . For example, in the way the body reacts to fatty foods, the genetic component is completely absent, and in the response to glucose, only about 30% depends on heredity, “the researchers emphasized.